Hugh Auchincloss, M.D., is the Principal Deputy Director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the United States National Institutes of Health. In this capacity he provides leadership for all NIAID research planning and implementation activities with a budget of approximately $4.9 billion (FY2011). His recent leadership activities include leading an institute initiative to design and implement changes in NIAID’s clinical research infrastructure, resulting in flexible clinical trial networks that will be available for research on HIV/AIDS as well as a number of other infectious diseases. Dr. Auchincloss has been active on a number of Federal and NIH-wide committees, including the TRND Trans-NIH Staff Advisory Group, the NIH Common Fund High Risk-High Reward Working Group, the NIH Institute and Center Directors CTSA Advisory Board, the NIH National Center for Research Resources Task Force, and the NIH Committee to Harmonize Missions of NCATS and CTSAs. Prior to his 2006 appointment at NIAID, Dr. Auchincloss was a transplant surgeon, immunologist, and Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School. For more than 17 years he ran a laboratory in transplantation immunology at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston with multiple research interests, including the mechanisms and control of tissue graft rejection, the mechanisms of transplantation tolerance induction, the use of pancreas and islet transplantation for the treatment of diabetes, and the prevention of recurrent autoimmunity. In 1998, he founded the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Center for Islet Transplantation and served as its director until 2003. He subsequently served as Chief Operating Officer of NIAID’s Immune Tolerance Network. In 2005 he was elected President of the American Society of Transplantation. He received his medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1976.