Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
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Nutrition During Lactation
Released: January 01, 1991
On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition of healthy mothers and the outcomes of lactation. Of widest interest are the committee's clear-cut recommendations for mothers and health care providers.The volume presents data on who among U.S. mothers is breastfeeding, a critical evaluation of methods for assessing the nutritional status of lactating women, and an analysis of how to relate the mother's nutrition to the volume and composition of the milk.Available data on the links between a mother's nutrition and the nutrition and growth of her infant and current information on the risk of transmission through breastfeeding of allergic diseases, environmental toxins, and certain viruses (including the HIV virus) are included. Nutrition During Lactation also studies the effects of maternal cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol consu
Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention
Released: January 01, 1991
Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention presents a five-prong strategy for reducing the incidence and prevalence of disability as well as its personal, social, and economic consequences. Although the preferred goal is to avoid potentially disabling conditions, the authoring committee focuses on the need to prevent or reverse the progression that leads to disability and reduced quality of life in persons with potentially disabling conditions. Calling for a coherent national program to focus on prevention, the committee sets forth specific recommendations for federal agencies, state and local programs, and the private sector.
Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements
Released: January 01, 1990
In Part I of Nutrition During Pregnancy, the authors call for revisions in recommended weight gains for pregnant women. They explore relationships between weight gain during pregnancy and a variety of factors (e.g., the mother's weight for height before pregnancy) and places this in the context of the health of the infant and the mother. They present specific target ranges for weight gain during pregnancy and guidelines for proper measurement.Part II addresses vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy, examining the adequacy of diet in meeting nutrient needs during pregnancy and recommending specific amounts of supplements for special circumstances. It also covers the effects of caffeine, alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and cocaine use and presents specific research recommendations.
Primary Care Physicians: Financing Their Graduate Medical Education in Ambulatory Settings
Released: January 01, 1989
Because of changes in the health care system, the hospital has become less suitable as the primary focus of graduate medical education for primary care physicians. However, the current system of financing health care education and services makes it difficult to accomplish the needed shift to training in primary care ambulatory settings. This book suggests ways of lowering financial barriers to primary care training in ambulatory settings.
The Future of Public Health
Released: January 01, 1988
This report contains proposals for ensuring that public health service programs are efficient and effective enough to deal not only with the topics of today, but also with those of tomorrow. In addition, the authors make recommendations for core functions in public health assessment, policy development, and service assurances, and identify the level of government--federal, state, and local--at which these functions would best be handled. An update to this report was released in 2002, The Future of the Public's Health in the 21st Century.
Improving the Quality of Care in Nursing Homes
Released: January 01, 1986
As more people live longer, the need for quality long-term care for the elderly will increase dramatically. This report examines the current system of nursing home regulations, and proposes an overhaul to better provide for those confined to such facilities.
Community Oriented Primary Care: New Directions for Health Services Delivery
Released: January 01, 1983
In March 1982 the Institute of Medicine sponsored an invitational Conference on Community Oriented Primary Care (COPC). The success of the conference is evidenced by the richness of these proceedings. The contents of this volume reflect the organization and main themes of the March conference.