About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.

Reports Index


  • Nutritional Needs in Hot Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Released: January 01, 1993
    This volume examines the current state of knowledge concerning the influence of a hot environment on nutrient requirements of military personnel. A parallel concern is ensuring that performance does not decline as a result of inadequate nutrition. The committee provides a thorough review of the literature in this area and interprets the diverse data in terms of military applications. In addition to a focus on specific nutrient needs in hot climates, the committee considers factors that might change food intake patterns and therefore overall calories.
  • The Health of Former Prisoners of War: Results from the Medical Examination Survey of Former POWs of World War II and the Korean Conflict Released: January 01, 1992
    The Institute of Medicine conducted a medical examination survey of former prisoners of war (POWs) of World War II (WWII) and the Korean conflict. This survey, which is part of a longitudinal follow-up study begun shortly after WWII, was the first to be based on medical examinations as well as on questionnaires and records for POWs and controls.
  • Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States Released: January 01, 1992
    This report presents a historical perspective on infectious disease and discusses how "new" disease such as HIV and AIDS arise and how "old" diseases such as HIV and AIDS arise and how "old" disease such as tuberculosis resurge.
  • Nutrition Services in Perinatal Care: Second Edition Released: January 01, 1992
    This book focuses on nutrition services beginning in the preconceptional period and extending well beyond birth. It provides the rationale for the recommended nutritional services; briefly describes the necessary elements of these services; and indicates the personnel, knowledge, skills, and specialized education or training that may be needed to deliver them.It will be useful to policymakers, hospital administrators, directors of health centers, physicians in private or group practices, and others responsible for setting such standards and for overseeing health care services for expectant and new mothers and their infants.
  • Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation Guide Released: January 01, 1992
    Authorities agree that nutritional care for pregnant, about-to-be pregnant, and nursing women can prevent health problems that are costly in terms of both dollars and quality of life. Yet many women still receive little guidance regarding maternal nutrition.Now, health care professionals can turn to a handy, practical guide for help in smoothly integrating maternal nutritional care into their practices. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation provides physicians, nurses, primary care providers, and midwives with a ready-made, step-by-step program for helping new mothers.
  • Body Composition and Physical Performance: Applications for the Military Services Released: January 01, 1992
    This book surveys the entire field of body composition as it relates to performance. It includes a clear definition of terminology and a discussion of the various methods for measuring body composition. The book also addresses the issue of physical appearance as it relates to body fatness and performance. It includes an in-depth discussion of many of the topics of interest to those involved in sports medicine and exercise physiology.
  • Nutrition During Lactation Released: January 01, 1991
    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition of healthy mothers and the outcomes of lactation. Of widest interest are the committee's clear-cut recommendations for mothers and health care providers.The volume presents data on who among U.S. mothers is breastfeeding, a critical evaluation of methods for assessing the nutritional status of lactating women, and an analysis of how to relate the mother's nutrition to the volume and composition of the milk.Available data on the links between a mother's nutrition and the nutrition and growth of her infant and current information on the risk of transmission through breastfeeding of allergic diseases, environmental toxins, and certain viruses (including the HIV virus) are included. Nutrition During Lactation also studies the effects of maternal cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol consu
  • Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention Released: January 01, 1991
    Disability in America: Toward a National Agenda for Prevention presents a five-prong strategy for reducing the incidence and prevalence of disability as well as its personal, social, and economic consequences. Although the preferred goal is to avoid potentially disabling conditions, the authoring committee focuses on the need to prevent or reverse the progression that leads to disability and reduced quality of life in persons with potentially disabling conditions. Calling for a coherent national program to focus on prevention, the committee sets forth specific recommendations for federal agencies, state and local programs, and the private sector.
  • Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II: Nutrient Supplements Released: January 01, 1990
    In Part I of Nutrition During Pregnancy, the authors call for revisions in recommended weight gains for pregnant women. They explore relationships between weight gain during pregnancy and a variety of factors (e.g., the mother's weight for height before pregnancy) and places this in the context of the health of the infant and the mother. They present specific target ranges for weight gain during pregnancy and guidelines for proper measurement.Part II addresses vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy, examining the adequacy of diet in meeting nutrient needs during pregnancy and recommending specific amounts of supplements for special circumstances. It also covers the effects of caffeine, alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and cocaine use and presents specific research recommendations.
  • Primary Care Physicians: Financing Their Graduate Medical Education in Ambulatory Settings Released: January 01, 1989
    Because of changes in the health care system, the hospital has become less suitable as the primary focus of graduate medical education for primary care physicians. However, the current system of financing health care education and services makes it difficult to accomplish the needed shift to training in primary care ambulatory settings. This book suggests ways of lowering financial barriers to primary care training in ambulatory settings.