About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.

Reports Index

  • Mortality of Veteran Participants in the CROSSROADS Nuclear Test Released: January 01, 1996
    Mortality experience was evaluated for the approximately 40,000 U.S. Navy personnel who participated in Operation CROSSROADS, a 1946 atmospheric nuclear test series that took place in the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. To judge whether that mortality experience was influenced by CROSSROADS participation, those personnel were compared to a control group assembled to be similar to the participants in all ways (age, pay grade, military experience, time of service, location of service) possible except for the Operation CROSSROADS participation.
  • Food Chemicals Codex, Fourth Edition Released: January 01, 1996
    Since its first edition in 1966, the Food Chemicals Codex has provided the accepted standards for quality and purity in food chemicals, officially referenced by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and many agencies in other countries.
  • Nutritional Needs in Cold and High-Altitude Environments: Applications for Military Personnel in Field Operations Released: January 01, 1996
    This report reviews the research pertaining to nutrient requirements for working in cold or in high-altitude environments and states recommendations regarding the application of this information to military operational rations. It addresses whether, aside from increased energy demands, cold or high-altitude environments elicit an increased demand or requirement for specific nutrients, and whether performance in cold or high-altitude environments can be enhanced by the provision of increased amounts of specific nutrients.
  • Health Consequences of Service During the Persian Gulf War: Recommendations for Research and Information Systems Released: January 01, 1996
    The committee was asked to review the government's means of collecting and maintaining information for assessing the health consequences of military service and to recommend improvements and epidemiological studies if warranted. This new volume reflects an additional year of study by the committee and the full results of its three-year effort.
  • Primary Care: America's Health in a New Era Released: January 01, 1996
    Ask for a definition of primary care, and you are likely to hear as many answers as there are health care professionals in your survey. Primary Care: America's Health in a New Era fills this gap with a detailed definition already adopted by professional organizations. This volume makes recommendations for improving primary care, building its organization, financing, infrastructure, and knowledge base--as well as developing a way of thinking and acting for primary care clinicians.
  • The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families Released: January 01, 1995
    Experts estimate that nearly 60 percent of all U.S. pregnancies--and 81 percent of pregnancies among adolescents--are unintended. Yet the topic of preventing these unintended pregnancies has long been treated gingerly because of personal sensitivities and public controversies, especially the debate over abortion. In this climate The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families offers a timely exploration of family planning issues from a distinguished panel of experts.
  • Adverse Reproductive Outcomes in Families of Atomic Veterans: The Feasibility of Epidemiologic Studies (1995) Released: January 01, 1995
    This mandated an IOM study to evaluate the feasibility of a study to determine the relationship between the exposure of veterans to ionizing radiation and the occurrence of genetic defects in their children; adverse reproductive outcomes experiences by their wives; and periparturient diseases of the mother that are the direct result of such adverse reproductive outcomes.
  • Weighing the Options: Criteria for Evaluating Weight-Management Programs Released: January 01, 1995
    Many adults in America are obese and many more are dieting at any one time. This has resulted in a weight-loss industry worth billions of dollars a year and growing. What are the long-term results of weight-loss programs? How can people sort through the many programs available and select one that is right for them? Weighing the Options strives to answer these questions.
  • Health Consequences of Service During the Persian Gulf War: Initial Findings and Recommendations for Immediate Action Released: January 01, 1995
    This initial volume in an ongoing study of the potential health consequences of service during the Persian Gulf War responds to a request from Congress to determine whether actions taken to evaluate health effects have been appropriate.
  • Dental Education at the Crossroads: Challenges and Changes Released: January 01, 1995
    This comprehensive volume--the first to cover the education, research, and patient care missions of dental schools--offers specific recommendations on oral health assessment, access to dental care, dental school curricula, financing for education, research priorities, examinations and licensing, workforce planning, and other key areas.