About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.

Reports Index


  • Measuring the Health of Persian Gulf Veterans: Workshop Summary Released: January 01, 1998
    The committee organized a workshop on May 7, 1998, the purpose of which was to provide its members with background information on the health concerns of PGW veterans and an overview of research on this topic as a starting point for committee deliberations. This report of the presentations and discussion at that invitational workshop is being prepared in response to a request from the study sponsors, DVA and DoD. The report is strictly a summary of the workshop.
  • Vitamin C Fortification of Food Aid Commodities: Final Report Released: January 01, 1998
    In the present report the committee reviews and evaluates the final report of the pilot program, determines the cost-effectiveness of scaling up vitamin C fortification, makes recommendations concerning the advisability of increasing vitamin C fortification, and discusses alternative mechanisms for providing vitamin C to refugee populations at risk for vitamin C deficiency.
  • Assessing Readiness in Military Women: The Relationship of Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health Released: January 01, 1998
    U.S. military personnel are required to adhere to standards of body composition, fitness, and appearance to achieve and maintain readiness--that is, the maintenance of optimum health and performance so they are ready for deployment at any moment. In 1992, the Committee on Military Nutrition Research reviewed the existing standards and found that the standards for body composition required for women to achieve an appearance goal seemed to conflict with those necessary to ensure the ability to perform many types of military tasks. This report addresses that conflict, and reviews and makes recommendations about current policies.
  • The Social Security Administration's Disability Decision Process: A Framework for Research, Second Interim Report Released: January 01, 1998
    In July 2005, the Social Security Administration (SSA) proposed a new approach to assessing claims for disability benefits, which includes establishment of a national network of medical and psychological experts to evaluate cases. SSA asked the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies to offer guidance on the medical expertise required to evaluate medical records quickly and accurately. In Improving the Social Security Disability Decision Process: Interim Report, an IOM committee offers recommendations on the credentials that medical and psychological personnel who review case records should have, the training they need, and the compensation necessary to attract them.
  • Control of Cardiovascular Diseases in Developing Countries Released: January 01, 1998
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are increasing in epidemic proportions in developing countries. Large-scale CVD control efforts are lacking, however, and thus governments and individuals are left to make choices about health and health care services without the benefit of appropriate knowledge. This report was designed to promote a policy dialogue on CVD based on informed knowledge of R&D opportunities that offer effective, affordable, and widely applicable responses in developing countries.
  • Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Tools for Policymakers and Public Health Workers Released: January 01, 1998
    Micronutrient malnutrition affects approximately 2 billion people worldwide. The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies are profound and include premature death, poor health, blindness, growth stunting, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and low work capacity. This report provides a conceptual framework based on past experience that will allow funders to tailor programs to existing regional/country capabilities and to incorporate within these programs the capacity to address multiple strategies and multiple micronutrient deficiencies.
  • From Generation to Generation: The Health and Well-Being of Children in Immigrant Families Released: January 01, 1998
    Immigrant children and youth are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population, and so their prospects bear heavily on the well-being of the country. However, relevant public policy is shaped less by informed discussion than by politicized contention over welfare reform and immigration limits. This report explores what we know about the development of white, black, Hispanic, and Asian children and youth from numerous countries of origin.
  • Ensuring Safe Food From Production to Consumption Released: January 01, 1998
    How safe is our food supply? Each year the media report what appears to be growing concern related to illness caused by the food consumed by Americans. These food borne illnesses are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, pesticide residues, and food additives. Actions taken at the federal, state, and local levels in response to the increase in reported incidences of food borne illnesses point to the need to evaluate the food safety system in the United States. This report assesses the effectiveness of the current food safety system and provides recommendations on changes needed to ensure an effective science-based food safety system.
  • Adequacy of the Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program: A Focused Assessment Released: January 01, 1998
    In 1994, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the IOM to assemble a group of medical and public health experts to evaluate the adequacy of the Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP). Late in 1995, DoD asked the IOM to continue its evaluation of the CCEP with special attention to the adequacy of the protocol.
  • Bridging the Gap Between Practice and Research: Forging Partnerships with Community-Based Drug and Alcohol Treatment Released: January 01, 1998
    Today, most substance abuse treatment is administered by community-based organizations. If providers could readily incorporate the most recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of addiction and treatment, the treatment would be much more effective and efficient. Informed by real-life experiences in addiction treatment including workshops and site visits, this report examines why research remains remote from treatment and makes specific recommendations to community providers, federal and state agencies, and other decisionmakers.