About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Assessing Health Outcomes Among Veterans of Project SHAD ... Released: January 08, 2016
    In the 1960s, close to 5,900 military personnel, mostly Navy and Marines, participated in Project SHAD—a series of classified tests of U.S. warship vulnerability to biological and chemical warfare agents.
  • Long-Term Health Effects of Participation in Project SHAD ... Released: May 30, 2007
    The Shipboard Hazard and Defense Project (SHAD) was a series of tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Defense during the 1960s to determine how well service members aboard military ships could detect and respond to chemical and biological attacks. Although many of the roughly 5,500 veterans who took part were aware of the tests, some were involved without their knowledge. The report, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, finds no clear evidence that specific long-term health effects are associated with participation in Project SHAD.
  • Improving the Social Security Disability Decision Process ... Released: February 13, 2007
    The Social Security Administration (SSA) uses a time saving screening tool called the Listing of Impairments (Listings) to identify individuals who meet the Social Security definition of disability, but it is concerned with a substantial drop in the percentage of claims granted disability benefits based on the Listings over the past 25 years. At the request of the SSA, the Institute of Medicine formed a committee which issued the report; Improving the Social Security Disability Decision Process, addressing the medical aspects of disability determination and recommending improvements.
  • Battling Malaria: Strengthening the US Military Malaria ... Released: May 25, 2006
    Recognizing the great complexity and expense of the mission to develop a malaria vaccine for the U.S. military in an era of scarce resources, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a programmatic review of the military Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine research and development program. This review recommends ways to overcome barriers to vaccine development and to streamline the department’s research efforts.
  • Noise and Military Service: Implications for Hearing Loss and ... Released: September 22, 2005
    This report provides findings regarding the presence of hazardous noise in military settings, levels of noise exposure necessary to cause hearing loss or tinnitus, risk factors and timing of the effects of noise exposure, and the adequacy of military hearing conservation programs and audiometric testing.
  • Strategies to Leverage Research Funding: Guiding DOD's ... Released: September 08, 2004
    Since 1992, the Department of Defense (DOD), through the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command (USAMRMC), has received congressionally earmarked appropriations for programs of biomedical research on prostate, breast, and ovarian cancer, neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, and other health problems. At the request of Congress, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) examined possibilities of augmenting program funding from alternative sources. The resulting IOM report, Strategies to Leverage Research Funding: Guiding DOD's Peer Reviewed Medical Research Programs, focuses on nonfederal and private sector contributions that could extend the appropriated funds without biasing the peer review project selection process.
  • Giving Full Measure to Countermeasures: Addressing ... Released: January 21, 2004
    According to a new, congressionally mandated report from the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council of the National Academies, to successfully develop these drugs, vaccines, and other medical interventions against biowarfare agents, Congress should authorize the creation of a new agency within the Office of the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Defense.
  • Advancing Prion Science: Guidance for the National Prion ... Released: November 17, 2003
    In Advancing Prion Science, the IOM Committee on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies: Assessment of Relevant Science recommends priorities for research and investment to the Department of Defense's National Prion Research Program (NPRP). Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also called prion diseases, are invariably fatal neurodegenerative infectious diseases that include bovine spongiform encephalopathy (commonly called mad cow disease), chronic wasting disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and scrapie. Unlike all other known infectious diseases, TSE infectivity appears to be associated with an abnormally folded protein called a prion. To develop antemortem diagnostics or therapies for TSEs, the committee concludes, NPRP should invest in basic research specifically to elucidate the structural features of prions, the molecular mechanisms of prion replication, the mechanisms of TSE pathogenesis, and the physiological function of prions’ normal cellular isoform.
  • Accelerating the Research, Development, and Acquisition of ... Released: April 18, 2003
    Currently, the United States has a limited repertoire of licensed medical countermeasures that the Department of Defense (DoD) can use to protect members of the armed forces against more than a dozen bacteria, viruses, and toxins identified as possible biological warfare agents. As part of its Chemical and Biological Defense Program, DoD is engaged in research and development efforts aimed at making available a broader range of medical countermeasures.
  • Advancing Prion Science: Guidance for the National Prion ... Released: January 28, 2003
    Consequently, the U.S. Department of Defense launched the National Prion Research Program in 2002 with $42.5 million and asked the Institute of Medicine to provide a research agenda for the first round of grants. Advancing Prion Science is that agenda.