Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Building Communication Capacity to Counter Infectious ...
Released: June 16, 2017
Building communication capacity is a critical piece of preparing for, detecting, and responding to infectious disease threats. Various organizations, including CDC (2011) and WHO (2008), have provided guidance on developing frameworks, standards, protocols, and conceptual approaches to communicating critical information during infectious disease outbreaks. Furthermore, governments and nongovernmental organizations have developed and implemented plans to address the gaps in communication capacity during these situations.
Cancer Care in Low-Resource Areas: Cancer Treatment ...
Released: May 23, 2017
Though cancer was once considered to be a problem primarily in wealthy nations, low- and middle-income countries now bear a majority share of the global cancer burden. Disparities in cancer outcomes also exist in high-income countries—communities within wealthier nations can experience worse cancer outcomes, especially if they have challenges in accessing cancer prevention and cancer care services.
Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The ...
Released: April 12, 2017
The 2014 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and deadliest Ebola outbreak in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths. In the midst of the rapidly spreading, highly dangerous contagious disease—with no Ebola-specific vaccines or therapeutics available to help curb the epidemic—the international community implemented clinical trials on investigational agents, not yet studied in humans for safety or efficacy.
A National Strategy for the Elimination of Hepatitis B and C ...
Released: March 28, 2017
Each year, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus cause nearly 1.5 million deaths worldwide—more than HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria. Such loss of life comes at a cost to society through the direct expense of treatment as well as through the loss of adults in their prime. In an effort to describe a strategy for eliminating viral hepatitis as a U.S. public health problem by 2030, the National Academies, with support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, and the National Viral Hepatitis Roundtable, convened an expert committee to outline a national strategy.
Therapeutic Development in the Absence of Predictive Animal ...
Released: March 10, 2017
Despite the high prevalence and burden of nervous system disorders, development of new therapeutics lags behind other disease areas. Gaps in understanding the underlying pathophysiology, a dearth of biomarkers, and limitations in the capacity of animal models to predict drug efficacy for human brain disorders have contributed to a high rate of late stage failures in drug development and decreased investment in neuroscience research programs at pharmaceutical companies. On September 12-13, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a public workshop to explore opportunities to accelerate drug development absent predictive animal models.
International Perspectives on Integrating Ethical, Legal, and ...
Released: January 09, 2017
Emerging neurotechnologies—devices and techniques designed to collect information about the brain or affect its function—are becoming increasingly important due to scientific and technological advances and a persistent need to develop effective therapies to address the large global burden of neurological and psychiatric disease. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)—in collaboration with Arizona State University and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine—held a workshop in Washington, DC, on Neurotechnology and Society: Strengthening Responsible Innovation in Brain Science.
Big Data and Analytics for Infectious Disease Research ...
Released: December 08, 2016
With the amount of data in the world exploding, big data could generate significant value in the field of infectious disease. The Forum on Microbial Threats determined that the broader applications and implications of big data in these areas ought to be explored, where “big data” refers to any voluminous amount of structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for insights and information.
The Ebola Epidemic in West Africa: Proceedings of a ...
Released: December 06, 2016
The most recent Ebola epidemic that began in late 2013 alerted the entire world to the gaps in infectious disease emergency preparedness and response. Building on previous outbreak workshops, the Forum on Microbial Threats convened this workshop to understand the recent developments in incidence, prevalence, and intervention strategies used to mitigate the disease in an increasingly interconnected world. Recognizing the opportunity to learn from the countless lessons of this epidemic, this workshop discussed the challenges to successful outbreak responses at the scientific, clinical, and global health levels.
Developing Multimodal Therapies for Brain Disorders ...
Released: November 18, 2016
Califf was the keynote speaker at a workshop on multimodality therapies for brain disorders, convened by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous Systems Disorders. The workshop brought together key stakeholders to examine the general principles underlying multimodal therapies and to explore challenges, potential barriers, and opportunities for their development from multiple perspectives, including scientific, clinical, regulatory, and financial. These proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at the workshop.
Implementation of Lung Cancer Screening: Proceedings of a ...
Released: November 17, 2016
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States; each year, more people die from lung cancer than from colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined. There has been a push to develop and implement screening strategies for the early detection of lung cancer. The National Lung Screening Trial evaluated the effectiveness of annual screening with low-dose computed tomography to reduce lung cancer mortality among individuals at high risk.