About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Guiding Principles for Developing Dietary Reference Intakes ... Released: August 03, 2017
    For decades, nutrient intake recommendations have been issued through the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) established by consensus committees of the Institute of Medicine, and now the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (the National Academies). For each nutrient (e.g., vitamins, minerals, water, electrolytes, carbohydrate, or protein) deemed essential, DRI committees reviews the scientific literature to help inform nutrition standards of adequacy and toxicity for groups of people of different genders and at different life stages. These DRIs are used for planning and assessing the diets of apparently healthy individuals and groups.
  • Creating Equal Opportunities for a Healthy Weight - Workshop ... Released: November 25, 2013
    The 2012 IOM report Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention identified five environments in which change is needed to accelerate progress in obesity prevention. Each of these settings -physical activity, food and beverage, messaging, health care and worksites, and schools– interact with the others, creating a set of interconnected systems that can be changed only through engagement, leadership, and action among many groups and at many levels. The IOM Standing Committee on Childhood Obesity Prevention held a workshop to examine the role of the many factors that contribute to health disparities and to explore ways to create equity.
  • Challenges and Opportunities for Change in Food Marketing ... Released: March 04, 2013
    The childhood obesity epidemic is an urgent public health problem, and it will continue to take a substantial toll on the health of Americans. The most recent data show that almost a third of U.S. children and adolescents are overweight or obese. Children are exposed to an enormous amount of commercial advertising and marketing for food. In 2009, children age 2-11 saw and average of more than 10 television food ads per day. The marketing of high-calorie, low-nutrient foods and beverages is linked to overweight and obesity. The IOM hosted a workshop which examined contemporary trends in marketing of foods and beverages to children and youth and the implications of those trends for obesity prevention.
  • Alliances for Obesity Prevention: Finding Common Ground ... Released: May 11, 2012
    Many organizations are making focused efforts to prevent obesity. To achieve their goals, accelerate their progress, and sustain their success, the assistance of many other individuals and groups—not all of them with a singular focus on obesity prevention—will be essential. In October 2011 the Institute of Medicine held a workshop that provided an opportunity for obesity prevention groups to hear from and hold discussions with many of these potential allies in obesity prevention. They explored common ground for joint activities and mutual successes, and lessons learned from efforts at aligning diverse groups with goals in common.
  • Enhancing Food Safety: The Role of the Food and Drug ... Released: June 08, 2010
    Foodborne illnesses cause hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths in the United States each year. At the request of Congress, the IOM examined gaps in the current food safety system under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration.
  • Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A ... Released: March 22, 2010
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly 30 percent of deaths in low and middle income countries each year, yet most governments, global health institutions, and development agencies have largely overlooked it. The IOM recommends strategies to reduce the global burden of CVD.
  • Use of Dietary Supplements by Military Personnel : Health and ... Released: June 09, 2008
    The use of dietary supplements has become increasingly popular among members of the military. While some supplements may provide benefits to health, others could carry adverse effects that might compromise the readiness and performance of service members. The U.S. Department of Defense, the Samueli Institute, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with additional support from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) review the use of dietary supplements by military personnel, recommending a framework to identify the need for management of dietary supplement use within the military, and developing an approach to report adverse health events.
  • The Richard and Hinda Rosenthal Lecture 2004: Perspectives ... Released: November 14, 2005
    The 2004 Rosenthal Lecture featured a panel talk on the IOM report, Preventing Childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance.
  • Progress in Preventing Childhood Obesity: Focus on Schools ... Released: October 12, 2005
    This brief summary highlights the recurring themes for accelerating change and moving forward with obesity prevention efforts that emerged from the symposium: forging strategic partnerships; empowering local schools and communities; educating stakeholders; evaluating obesity prevention efforts; documenting the benefits of obesity prevention; innovating to address barriers; using a systems approach; and developing a long-term strategic plan.
  • Nutrient Composition of Rations for Short-Term, High-Intensity ... Released: June 03, 2005
    This report reviews the unique circumstances of soldiers deployed in short-term, high intensity missions; by considering health concerns, food intake, energy expenditure, physical exercise and food technology issues, the report gives recommendations on the nutritional composition of daily rations for assault missions.