About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Safety of Silicone Breast Implants : Health and Medicine ... Released: June 01, 1999
    Safety of Silicone Breast Implants presents a well-documented, thoughtful exploration of the safety of these devices, drawing conclusions from the available research base and suggesting further questions to be answered. This report also examines the sensitive issues surrounding women's decisions about implants.
  • Contraceptive Research, Development, and Use: Lessons ... Released: January 01, 1998
    In April 1997 an Institute of Medicine workshop on implant contraceptives reviewed newly available data on Norplant's efficacy, safety, and use; identified lessons to be learned about the method's development, introduction, use, and market experience; and explored approaches to developing and introducing new contraceptives based on those lessons.
  • Assessing Readiness in Military Women: The Relationship of ... Released: January 01, 1998
    U.S. military personnel are required to adhere to standards of body composition, fitness, and appearance to achieve and maintain readiness--that is, the maintenance of optimum health and performance so they are ready for deployment at any moment. In 1992, the Committee on Military Nutrition Research reviewed the existing standards and found that the standards for body composition required for women to achieve an appearance goal seemed to conflict with those necessary to ensure the ability to perform many types of military tasks. This report addresses that conflict, and reviews and makes recommendations about current policies.
  • The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well ... Released: January 01, 1995
    Experts estimate that nearly 60 percent of all U.S. pregnancies--and 81 percent of pregnancies among adolescents--are unintended. Yet the topic of preventing these unintended pregnancies has long been treated gingerly because of personal sensitivities and public controversies, especially the debate over abortion. In this climate The Best Intentions: Unintended Pregnancy and the Well-Being of Children and Families offers a timely exploration of family planning issues from a distinguished panel of experts.
  • Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation: An Implementation ... Released: January 01, 1992
    Authorities agree that nutritional care for pregnant, about-to-be pregnant, and nursing women can prevent health problems that are costly in terms of both dollars and quality of life. Yet many women still receive little guidance regarding maternal nutrition.Now, health care professionals can turn to a handy, practical guide for help in smoothly integrating maternal nutritional care into their practices. Nutrition During Pregnancy and Lactation provides physicians, nurses, primary care providers, and midwives with a ready-made, step-by-step program for helping new mothers.
  • Nutrition Services in Perinatal Care: Second Edition : Health ... Released: January 01, 1992
    This book focuses on nutrition services beginning in the preconceptional period and extending well beyond birth. It provides the rationale for the recommended nutritional services; briefly describes the necessary elements of these services; and indicates the personnel, knowledge, skills, and specialized education or training that may be needed to deliver them.It will be useful to policymakers, hospital administrators, directors of health centers, physicians in private or group practices, and others responsible for setting such standards and for overseeing health care services for expectant and new mothers and their infants.
  • Nutrition During Lactation : Health and Medicine Division Released: January 01, 1991
    On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition of healthy mothers and the outcomes of lactation. Of widest interest are the committee's clear-cut recommendations for mothers and health care providers.The volume presents data on who among U.S. mothers is breastfeeding, a critical evaluation of methods for assessing the nutritional status of lactating women, and an analysis of how to relate the mother's nutrition to the volume and composition of the milk.Available data on the links between a mother's nutrition and the nutrition and growth of her infant and current information on the risk of transmission through breastfeeding of allergic diseases, environmental toxins, and certain viruses (including the HIV virus) are included. Nutrition During Lactation also studies the effects of maternal cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol consu
  • Nutrition During Pregnancy: Part I: Weight Gain, Part II ... Released: January 01, 1990
    In Part I of Nutrition During Pregnancy, the authors call for revisions in recommended weight gains for pregnant women. They explore relationships between weight gain during pregnancy and a variety of factors (e.g., the mother's weight for height before pregnancy) and places this in the context of the health of the infant and the mother. They present specific target ranges for weight gain during pregnancy and guidelines for proper measurement.Part II addresses vitamin and mineral supplementation during pregnancy, examining the adequacy of diet in meeting nutrient needs during pregnancy and recommending specific amounts of supplements for special circumstances. It also covers the effects of caffeine, alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, and cocaine use and presents specific research recommendations.