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The Institute of Medicine, at the request of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and with guidance from the IOM's Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments, has established the Committee to Review NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks. This letter report is the third in a series of five reports (IOM, 2014, 2015). The committee will provide an independent review of the more than 30 evidence reports that NASA has compiled on human health risks for long-duration and exploration spaceflights. This 2015 letter report builds on the work of the 2008 IOM report and examines seven evidence reports.