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Over the past several decades, the number of children receiving SSI has risen overall, and the number receiving SSI on the basis of speech and language disorders has increased as well. The Social Security Administration requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convene a committee to identify trends in the prevalence of speech and language disorders among U.S. children and to compare those trends to changes observed in the population of children who receive SSI. The resulting report, Speech and Language Disorders in Children: Implications for the Social Security Administration’s Supplemental Security Income Program, reviews the evidence and identifies factors related to the rising rates of speech and language disorders. The report’s findings and conclusions underscore the long-term and profound impact of severe speech and language disorders on children, as well as the degree to which children with such disorders can be expected to be a significant presence in a program such as SSI.