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For almost 25 years, the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (CDMRP) has been funding medical research for health conditions that affect military service members and veterans, their families, and the general public. Congress, in response to advocacy groups and other interested parties, determines which programs will be funded and at what level each year. To ensure that the best research applications are funded, CDMRP has implemented a two-tiered review process. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine committee was asked by Congress to evaluate that review process, assessing how CDMRP coordinates its research priorities with National Institutes of Health and the Department of Veterans Affairs, and to make recommendations to improve the review and selection of research applications. In this report, the Evaluation of the CDMRP Review Process, the committee judged the effectiveness of the CDMRP review process and provided findings and recommendations.