News from the National Academies http://www.nationalacademies.org en-us maintainer@nas.edu webmaster@nas.edu News from the National Academies http://www.nationalacademies.org/xpedio/groups/nasite/documents/webgraphics/na_069845.gif http://www.nationalacademies.org U.S. Survival Rates Around 6 Percent for Cardiac Arrests Occurring Outside of a Hospital http://www.iom.edu/Activities/PublicHealth/TreatmentofCardiacArrest/2015-June-30.aspx Cardiac arrest strikes almost 600,000 people each year, killing the vast majority of those individuals, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine. Wide disparities of survival rates exist across the country, but benchmark communities demonstrate that saving more lives is possible. Although evidence indicates that bystander use of CPR and automated external defibrillators can significantly improve survival and outcomes from cardiac arrest, each year less than 3 percent of the U.S. population receives CPR training. To improve health outcomes, the report calls for enhancing the performance of EMS systems; improving systems of care within hospital settings; expanding research in cardiac arrest resuscitation; and educating and training the public on how to recognize cardiac arrest, contact emergency responders, administer CPR, and use automated external defibrillators. June 30, 2015 http://www.iom.edu/Activities/PublicHealth/TreatmentofCardiacArrest/2015-June-30.aspx Health Care Wait Times Differ Greatly Throughout U.S http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=20220 Wait times for health care appointments vary tremendously throughout the U.S., ranging from same day service to several months, says a new report from the Institute of Medicine. The report calls for putting patients and families first and using "systems-based approaches" that are applied successfully in other industries to improve access to services. The study committee found that delays in access to health care have negative effects on health outcomes, patient satisfaction, health care utilization, and organizational reputation. Causes for delays include mismatched supply and demand of services, the current provider-focused approach to scheduling, outmoded workforce and care supply models, priority-based queues, care complexity, reimbursement complexity, and financial and geographic barriers.
June 29, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=20220
New Report Examines Options for Tying Insurance Rates to Flood Risk for Low-Lying Structures http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21720 Approximately 1 million low-lying structures in U.S. floodplains receive subsidized insurance rates that do not reflect the actual risk of flooding. New legislation requiring subsidies to be phased out and replaced by risk-based rates will result in substantial premium increases for most of these structures. A new report from the National Research Council found that current methods used by the National Flood Insurance Program don't fully capture the flood risk for low-lying structures, which are subject to more frequent flooding, longer durations and greater depths of flooding, and more damage from smaller flood events. The report offers alternative approaches for calculating risk-based rates for these structures, identifies critical data needs, and discusses the feasibility and cost of implementing the approaches. Read More
June 19, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21720
Analysis Used by Federal Agencies to Set Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Standards for U.S. Cars Was Generally of High Quality http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21744 The analysis used by federal agencies to set standards for fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions for new U.S. light-duty vehicles -- passenger cars and light trucks -- from 2017 to 2025 was thorough and of high caliber overall, says a new report from the National Research Council. However, the agencies should re-examine certain issues -- such as consumer behavior and the effectiveness of certain technologies -- in an upcoming mid-term review. In addition, the report finds, evidence suggests that the standards will lead the nation's light-duty vehicle fleet to become lighter but not less safe. Read More
June 18, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21744
Pope Issues Encyclical on Climate Change http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=06182015 Pope Francis issued a papal letter to the world's bishops reinforcing that human activity is causing climate change, and many developing nations are at particular risk. It calls for lifestyle and energy consumption changes to prevent the degradation of the Earth's ecosystem. The encyclical was informed by input from the Vatican's Pontifical Academy of Sciences. The full collection of National Research Council reports that address various climate change issues is available at nas-sites.org/americasclimatechoices, including: Climate Intervention: Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration Climate Intervention: Reflecting Sunlight to Cool Earth Climate Change: Evidence and Causes Abrupt Impacts of Climate Change: Anticipating Surprises America's Climate Choices Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts Over Decades to Millennia
June 18, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=06182015
Strategic Investments in U.S. Inland Waterways Should Focus on Maintaining Locks and Facilities; User-Pays Funding Strategy Would Promote Economic Efficiency http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21763 While the U.S. inland waterways system covers a vast geographic area, its freight traffic is highly concentrated, and the system needs a sustainable and well-executed plan for maintaining system reliability and performance to ensure that its resources are directed where they are most essential, says a new report from the National Research Council's Transportation Research Board. More targeted operations and maintenance (O&M) investments informed by an asset management approach would prioritize locks and facilities that are most in need of maintenance and for which the economic impacts of disruption would be highest. Read More
June 16, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21763
Advisory Group for Human Gene Editing Initiative Named http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=06152015 The National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine have formed an advisory group to counsel the NAS and NAM presidents on their new initiative on human gene editing. The role of the advisory group will be to identify and gather information and advice from the scientific and medical communities that will enable the academies to guide and inform researchers, clinicians, policymakers, and the public. Read More
June 15, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=06152015
New Report Says U.S. Freight Rail Regulations Outdated, Recommends Modernization Efforts http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21759 While a 1980 reform law enabled the modernization and stabilization of the U.S. freight railroad industry, federal regulation has not kept pace with the industry's transformation and should be replaced with a system better-suited for today's freight rail system, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council's Transportation Research Board. Current policies designed to protect rail shippers who lack transportation options from excessive rates are not working for shippers of most commodities, including grain. More appropriate, reliable, and usable procedures are needed to resolve these rate disputes without threatening the earnings railroads need to pay for their capital-intensive networks. Read More
June 10, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21759
Review of FAA's Certification Research Plan http://www.nap.edu/catalog/21757/transformation-in-the-air-a-review-of-the-faa-research The FAA's research plan for certifying new technologies into the national airspace system lacks detail and does not demonstrate how integration of aircraft, ground systems, and procedures will occur, says a new National Research Council report.
June 8, 2015
http://www.nap.edu/catalog/21757/transformation-in-the-air-a-review-of-the-faa-research
New Report Finds Some Improvements From D.C. School Reform Efforts, But Gaps in Learning Opportunities, Academic Outcomes, and Oversight Persist http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21743 While there have been some improvements in the public schools of the District of Columbia since a 2007 reform law, significant disparities remain in learning opportunities and academic progress across student groups and the city’s wards, says a new report from the National Research Council. The governance structure does not clearly address monitoring of learning conditions and outcomes for all public school students, nearly half of whom attend charter schools, and the city should create a comprehensive “data warehouse” to better track this information.
June 3, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21743
Role of Science and Technology Should Be Expanded Throughout Department of State http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21730 Given the critical role science and technology (S&T) play in a range of foreign policy issues, the U.S. State Department should strengthen and continuously update its S&T capabilities in order to carry out its mission more effectively, says a new report from the National Research Council. A cultural change is needed throughout the department and the American embassies so that S&T competence will be considered equal in importance to language fluency and area expertise as a critical aspect of diplomacy. Read More
June 2, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21730
National Academy of Sciences and National Academy of Medicine Announce Initiative on Human Gene Editing http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=05182015 The National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Medicine are launching a major initiative to guide decision making about controversial new research involving human gene editing. Human gene-editing technologies, such as CRISPR-Cas9, may lead to promising new treatments for disease. However, recent experiments to attempt to edit human genes also have raised important questions about the potential risks and ethical concerns of altering the human germline. Future advances are likely to raise new questions. The initiative will include an international summit this fall to convene researchers and other experts to explore the scientific, ethical, and policy issues associated with human gene-editing research. In addition, a multidisciplinary, international committee will conduct a comprehensive study of the scientific underpinnings and clinical, ethical, legal, and social implications of human gene editing. The committee will consider and recommend standards, guidelines, and practices governing the use of gene-editing technologies in biomedical research and medicine. An advisory group to steer the overall initiative will soon be announced. Read More
May 18, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=05182015
NAE Elects Foreign Secretary and Four Council Members https://www.nae.edu/Projects/MediaRoom/20095/130169/135738.aspx The National Academy of Engineering has elected Ruth A. David, recently retired president and chief executive officer of Analytic Services Inc. (ANSER), to a four-year term as foreign secretary. David previously served as councillor from 2007 to 2013. Also elected to NAE's governing council for three-year terms are Anita K. Jones, university professor emerita at the University of Virginia; Richard H. Truly, retired vice admiral in the U.S. Navy and retired director of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Wanda A. Austin, president and chief executive officer of The Aerospace Corporation; and John L. Anderson, president of Illinois Institute of Technology. All terms begin July 1.
May 11, 2015
https://www.nae.edu/Projects/MediaRoom/20095/130169/135738.aspx
FAA Should 'Reset Expectations' for Next Generation Air Transportation System http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21721 The original vision for the Next Generation Air Transportation System is not what is being implemented today, and the Federal Aviation Administration should "reset expectations" for the program meant to modernize and transform the national airspace, says a new congressionally mandated report from the National Research Council. The report recommends that FAA adopt a system architecture that supports decision making and provides a foundation for managing changes in technology and operations, and says it should incorporate cybersecurity and unmanned aircraft into its planning and design. Read More
May 1, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21721
Prime Minister of Japan Speaks at U.S. National Academy of Sciences http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=04302015 NAS President Ralph J. Cicerone hosted Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe at a breakfast meeting this morning with several U.S. leaders in the fields of science, engineering, and medicine. The meeting was co-hosted by Koji Omi, founder and chairman of the Science and Technology in Society (STS) forum, which holds a global conference of researchers, policymakers, and business leaders each year in Kyoto, Japan. Read More
April 30, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=04302015
Science Academies of G7 Nations Call for Action on Antibiotic Resistance, Tropical Diseases, and the Future of the Ocean http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=04292015 Today the national science academies of the G7 countries issued three statements to their respective governments for discussion during the G7 summit to be held in Germany this June. The papers on antibiotic resistance, neglected and poverty-related diseases, and the future of the ocean were drawn up by the seven national academies under the aegis of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Read More
April 29, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=04292015
Phasing in Aquifer Storage and Recovery in the Everglades Could Help Answer Remaining Questions http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21724 Although uncertainties about ecological impacts are too great to justify near-term, large-scale implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in the Everglades, ASR could be phased in to answer several important scientific questions and provide some early restoration benefits, says a report from the National Research Council. The report reviews a study by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the South Florida Water Management District. Read More
April 29, 2015
http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=21724