About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Global Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events. ... Released: September 24, 2008
    On December 4 and 5, 2007, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop in Washington, DC to consider the possible infectious disease impacts of global climate change and extreme weather events on human, animal, and plant health, as well as their expected implications for global and national security.
  • Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR. ... Released: September 15, 2008
    Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR is the summary of a 2-day workshop on methodological, policy, and practical design considerations for a future evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) interventions carried out under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which was convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) on April 30 and May 1, 2007.
  • Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment ... Released: July 10, 2008
    The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) conduct an independent assessment of the IPTi efficacy studies using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) that have been previously conducted by the IPTi Consortium. The IOM convened a committee to evaluate the evidence concerning IPTi-SP, which included addressing issues related to its utility and safety, as well as program management aspects of IPTi. The resulting letter report contains the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the IOM committee.
  • Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental ... Released: March 18, 2008
    The Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a workshop—on June 19-20, 2007, in Ft. Collins, CO—entitled Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections. The purpose of this public workshop was to examine the global burden of vector-borne diseases of humans, animals, and plants, and to discuss prospects for successful mitigation and response strategies.
  • Methodological Challenges in Biomedical HIV Prevention ... Released: February 21, 2008
    A new Institute of Medicine report, Methodological Challenges in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials, discusses various ways to improve the design, monitoring, and analysis of late-stage randomized clinical trials of biomedical interventions to prevent HIV infection. The main goals are to increase the chances that these trials will detect a beneficial effect on HIV infection risk and to more fully assess how adherence to the intervention influences HIV infection risk, and to assess the intervention’s effect on HIV risk behavior.
  • Violence Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries ... Released: January 25, 2008
    The current state of science in violence prevention reveals progress, promise, and a number of remaining challenges. In order to fully examine the issue of global violence prevention, the Institute of Medicine in collaboration with Global Violence Prevention Advocacy, convened a workshop and released the workshop summary entitled, Violence Prevention in Low-and Middle-Income Countries.
  • Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection ... Released: October 22, 2007
    The Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Microbial Threats convened a workshop addressing Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges—Finding Solutions on December 12 and 13, 2006, to consider scientific and policy issues relevant to the practice of disease surveillance and detection.
  • Review of the DoD-GEIS Influenza Programs: Strengthening ... Released: September 25, 2007
    In 2006, spurred in part by concerns about the H5N1 virus, Congress allocated $39 million in supplemental funding for DoD-GEIS to improve this surveillance network by upgrading the capabilities of its domestic and overseas laboratories. Afterward, DoD-GEIS management asked the Institute of Medicine to form a committee that would evaluate how well DoD-GEIS had spent the supplemental funds.
  • Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic ... Released: June 11, 2007
    In order to focus on the profound ethical and legal issues inherent in various pandemic disease mitigation approaches, that are being proposed domestically and internationally, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop and released the workshop summary entitled Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease.
  • PEPFAR Implementation: Progress and Promise : Health and ... Released: March 30, 2007
    In 2003 Congress passed the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act, which established a five-year, $15 billion initiative to help countries around the world respond to their AIDS epidemics. The initiative is generally referred to by the title of the five-year strategy required by the act—PEPFAR, or the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.