About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • New Frontiers in Contraceptive Research: A Blueprint for ... Released: January 20, 2004
    New Frontiers in Contraceptive Research: A Blueprint for Action identifies priority areas for research to develop new contraceptives. The report highlights new technologies and approaches to biomedical research, including genomics and proteomics, that hold particular promise for developing new products and also identifies impediments to drug development that must be addressed.
  • Improving Birth Outcomes: Meeting the Challenge in the ... Released: November 04, 2003
    The death of a mother, fetus, or newborn is tragic whenever it occurs. While relatively rare in the industrialized world, these deaths are considerably more common in developing countries, accounting for the vast majority of the 515,000 maternal deaths, 4 million late fetal deaths, and 4 million neonatal deaths conservatively estimated to occur each year. This report reviews the evidence on key interventions that could greatly improve birth outcomes in developing countries.
  • Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Military Women ... Released: May 21, 2003
    The incidence of stress fractures of the lower extremities during U.S. military basic training is significantly higher among female military recruits than among male recruits. As part of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, this report evaluates the impact of diet, genetic predisposition, and physical activity on bone mineral and calcium status in young servicewomen.
  • Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the ... Released: April 07, 2003
    Women's health, as a field of study, is a developing discipline. Health theories in general have been based on studies of men. However, in recent years, more attention has shifted to women's health, realizing the disparities between men and women in relation to their health. During the last two decades, a similar shift has occurred for a group of women--lesbian women--to further identify and specify their health needs. Lesbian Health: Current Assessment and Directions for the Future takes a frank look at the political pressures, community attitudes, and professional concerns uniquely affecting the study of lesbian health issues.
  • Saving Women's Lives: Strategies for Improving Breast ... Released: January 28, 2003
    The National Cancer Policy Board, in collaboration with the Board on Science and Technology and Economic Policy, has launched a new study to explore the most effective strategies for accelerating the flow of medical innovations from the stage of promising technology to the clinic, where they can be used to improve the outlook for breast cancer patients.
  • Mammography and Beyond: Developing Technologies for the ... Released: June 01, 2001
    Mammography and Beyond: Developing Technology for Early Detection of Breast Cancer reviews screening film mammography and other newer technologies, their current stage of development, usefulness, and issues in developing, approving, and payment methods. Although several new technologies on the horizon show promise for improved capability to detect breast cancer, the report says that none have yet proved superior to traditional, X-ray film mammography in screening for breast cancer. More evaluation and development of new imaging tools and of promising molecular biological techniques is required and warranted. This is a non-technical summary of that report.
  • Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does ... Released: April 24, 2001
    The Institute of Medicine formed a committee to evaluate and consider the current understanding of sex differences and determinants at the biological level and to identify current and potential barriers to the conduct of research in this area.
  • Mammography and Beyond: Developing Technologies for the ... Released: March 08, 2001
    This report reviews screening film mammography and other newer technologies, their current stage of development, usefulness, and issues in developing, approving, and payment methods. Although several new technologies on the horizon show promise for improved capability to detect breast cancer, the report says that none have yet proved superior to traditional, X-ray film mammography in screening for breast cancer. More evaluation and development of new imaging tools and of promising molecular biological techniques is required and warranted.
  • The Role of Nutrition in Maintaining Health in the Nation's ... Released: January 01, 2000
    Malnutrition and obesity are both common among Americans over age 65. There are also a host of other medical conditions from which older people and other Medicare beneficiaries suffer that could be improved with appropriate nutritional intervention. Despite that, access to a nutrition professional is very limited. This book addresses these questions, provides recommendations for nutrition services for the elderly, and considers how the coverage policy should be approached and practiced.
  • Information for Women about the Safety of Silicone Breast ... Released: January 01, 2000
    This 30-page booklet for was developed for women who have or who are considering breast implants; it is a lay version of a previously released IOM technical report, Safety of Silicone Breast Implants.