Dietary Reference Intakes Tables and Application
The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are nutrient reference values developed by the Institute of Medicine of The National Academies. They are intended to serve as a guide for good nutrition and provide the scientific basis for the development of food guidelines in both the United States and Canada. These nutrient reference values are specified on the basis of age, gender and lifestage and cover more than 40 nutrient substances.
In the mid-1990's, the DRIs replaced the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) in the United States and the Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI) in Canada. The DRIs are actually a set of several reference values that include values related to both adequate intakes and upper levels of intakes.
While the DRI values are established by different committees of experts, the values have been compiled into a single listing for easy viewing. A DRI summary guide has also been developed to help users of the DRIs understand the values and their applications. In addition, focused in-depth publications have been made available to help users understand the important considerations in applying the DRI values for assessing and planning diets.
On November 30, 2010, the IOM released Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for calcium and vitamin D. The values are based on much more information and higher-quality studies than were available when the values for these nutrients were first set in 1997.
As of July 1, 2015, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine continue the consensus studies and convening activities previously carried out by the Institute of Medicine.
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Select DRI Resources
Table: Estimated Average Requirement Values
Table: Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake Values, Vitamins and Elements
Table: Recommended Dietary Allowance and Adequate Intake Values, Total Water and Macronutrients
Table: Tolerable Upper Intake Level Values, Vitamins and Elements
Table: Chronic Disease Risk Reduction Intakes
Table: DRI Values Summary- A complete document containing the four tables listed above
Table: Elements Summary- Provides a description of function, DRI values, food sources, and adverse effects of excessive consumption. Includes arsenic, boron, calcium, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, phosphorus, selenium, silicon, vanadium, and zinc.
Table: Nutrients Summary- Provides a description of function, DRI values, food sources, and adverse effects of excessive consumption. Incudes biotin, choline, folate, niacin, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K.
Table: Macronutrients Summary- Provides a description of function, DRI values, food sources, and adverse effects of excessive consumption. Includes carbohydrates (total digestible), total fiber, total fat, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid), saturated and trans fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids, and indispensable amino acids.
Table: Electrolytes and Water Summary- Provides a description of function, DRI values, food sources and adverse effects of excessive consumption. Includes water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate.
Background Paper: Framework for DRI Development
USDA's Interactive DRI Tool for Health Care Professionals
On August 15, 2019, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued guidance providing step-by-step instruction on converting previous units of measure for folate, niacin, vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin E to the new units required on the updated Nutrition Facts and Supplement Facts labels. For more detail, visit http://www.fda.gov/food/cfsan-constituent-updates/fda-provides-guidance-industry-convert-units-measure-certain-nutrients-nutrition-and-supplement.